is under constant threat of invasion by some plant or animal that is
not native to this area. With no natural enemies, many of these non-native
species multiply and crowd out native species. The whole food web is
disrupted. Invasive species are often carried in by boats.
• "Stop Harmful Aquatic Species" signs
are posted at boat launch ramps at Regatta Grounds and Holmes Road Park. Portland
State University and other agencies worked together on the signs.
• Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers! Prevent
the transport of nuisance species. Clean all recreational equipment.
(national Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)
• It's Time to Come Clean (Oregon
State Marine Board) - www.boatoregon.com
• Invasive species - Why Should I Care? (BoatU.S.
Foundation for Boating Safety & Clean Water)
Read about Diamond Lake near Medford and their boat wash program - www.mailtribune.com
Two invasive aquatic plants in Devils Lake are:
species in Devils Lake include parrot feather, yellow flag iris, Japanese
knotweed, and reed canary grass.
In yards, parks and open spaces around
Remove English ivy, holly, and purple loosestrife.
"Whenever possible, remove any vine plants growing on or around the tree
trunk, especially invasive plants such as English ivy, poison oak, poison ivy,
and trailing blackberry. Such growth can add excessive weight loads to tree branches,
increase wind stresses which predispose the tree to mechanical failure, and can
set up conditions favorable to decaying organisms in plant wounds." ("Tree
Team," published by the Oregon Heritage Tree Program in Salem)
Publication about plants
Oregon a guide to non-invasive plants
The publication is a project of the Stop the Invasion campaign:
Oregonians taking action to protect our state from invasive species. Available
as a downloadable file: http://oregoninvasiveshotline.org
English ivy has two basic profiles. The immature, or juvenile, form is the
familiar vine with pointy green leaves that grows on the ground or climbs a
fence, wall, post, or tree. The plant may remain in this form for years. The
second form is when it matures and propagates. Then the leaves become rounder
and the plant produces a small greenish-white flower (somewhat like mistletoe)
and fleshy, purple-black berries. Portland Parks has a "No Ivy League" program
that Lincoln City should copy. www.noivyleague.org
Knotweed - do not cut
Watch for the three types of knotweed: Giant, Himalayan, and Japanese. Knotweed
can take over Himalayan blackberry habitat. It is a hardy plant with a huge
root system. Do not cut down the plant. Contact the Lincoln Soil and Water
Conservation District's at email@example.com. download
pdf fact sheet
has been targeted for removal around the lake. Volunteer work parties
are held in the summer months to remove the root. Call the Devils Lake
Water Improvement (DLWID) office at 994-5330 for the work dates. Brochures
about loosestrife are available at the DLWID office. Beetles have been
brought in as a means of biological control.
INVASION OF PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE
Behind the brilliant guise of purple loosestrife hides an ugly strategy:
the takeover of wetlands. Loosestrife is displacing the native wetland
plants at an alarming rate. When the conditions are right, a small isolated
group of loosestrife plants can spread and cover a marsh in only one
growing season. Once established, loosestrife is difficult to control. The
shallow woody root system forms a dense mat, making adult plants difficult
to pull. If the entire root is not taken, then it will resprout. If plants
are mowed, the stem pieces will actually send out new roots, eventually
become anchored and begin new colonies.
Besides these vegetative maneuvers, each plant's flower spike
has the capability to produce 120,000 seeds in a single season. These seeds remain
viable when submerged for many years while waiting for the opportunity to sprout.
Then during a dry summer, these seeds germinate suddenly. Often the dispersal
is such that the seedlings have the capacity to completely replace native vegetation.
HOW TO CONTROL SMALLER POPULATIONS
Because purple loosestrife is so widely distributed in the United States, it
is unlikely that elimination is possible. But, because the species has not
become well established in many areas, halting the spread of loosestrife and
eliminating it from newly-invaded areas is certainly feasible.
The key to stopping the spread of loosestrife lies in recognizing
the plant when it first appears and eradicating it before it becomes a dominant
part of the wetland ecosystem. By implementing the following measures, we can
stem the invasion of loosestrife.
By Hand - Generally effective on small clusters up to 100 plants.
Younger plants can be hand pulled.
Older plants, especially those in bogs and deep organic soils, can be
Roots must not be broken off or they will resprout.
All plant parts must be removed, dried, and if possible, burned. Plant
parts can reroot otherwise.
By Herbicide - May be necessary for clusters in excess of 100 plants
(up to 3 acres).
DESCRIPTION OF PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE
WHEN TO LOOK FOR IT: Mid-July through the end of August when it is in
bloom and easily recognized.
WHERE TO LOOK FOR IT: It is present on wet soils to shallow standing
water; wet meadows, pasture wetlands, cattail marshes, stream and river banks,
lake shores and ditches.
WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE:
Growth Habit: Upright hardy perennial, bushy, up to 7 feet tall.
Flowers: Purple-magenta color. Flowers numerous on a long spike; 5-6 petals
Leaves: Vary, although usually opposite; linear shape and smooth edges. Attached
directly (no stalk) to a four-sided stem.
Roots: Woody taproot with fibrous root system that forms a dense mat.
HOW IT SPREADS: It is a prolific seed producer; also grows from underground
root and sprouts from broken-off plant parts.
BEAUTY IS ONLY SKIN DEEP! The attractive plumage of purple loosestrife
conceals its menacing nature.
WHAT IS PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE? Purple loosestrife is an aquatic plant
that is gaining a foothold. You may have seen the plant's magenta flowers
which are strikingly evident throughout July and August. This hardy perennial
has been introduced from Europe. Because of its exotic origin, loosestrife
has left behind all of its natural enemies and multiplies with no checks
or balances in North America.
WHAT IS THE MAJOR IMPACT? The plant aggressively crowds out the
vegetation required by wildlife, while having no value for wildlife itself.
For example, songbirds do not make use of the small hard seed. Muskrat
require cattail to build their homes and they show a preference for cattail
over loosestrife for food. Waterfowl, especially ducks, shun wetlands
that have become dominated by loosestrife. In addition, overall waterfowl
production is decreased as habitat is eliminated. Finally, the plant's
growth is generally too compact to offer cover, and cover may be as crucial
to wildlife as food.
Excerpts from a USGS story about combating purple loosestrife in central Washington
state included below.
The beetles she was admiring were descendants of Galerucella beetles she had
released in 1995 to combat purple loosestrife, an invasive wetland weed. A
search for help led her to Bernd Blossey at Cornell University. Blossey supplied
a "starter-kit" of insects, and Eberts began experimenting with ways
to mass-produce the beetles. The resulting bugs were shipped to Craig Conley,
who released them at the Wasteway in 1995.
Eberts cautioned that several years of defoliation are necessary to kill the
plant, because this perennial weed has food reserves in its roots that can
sustain it for several years. She plans to introduce another insect, a root-feeding
weevil, to help deplete those reserves faster and kill more plants. Unfortunately,
this weevil is slow to reproduce-taking up to 2 years from egg to adult. Cooperative
research, between Reclamation and Cornell University, led to the development
of a soon-to-be-patented laboratory diet that produces large numbers of healthy
adult weevils in only 10 weeks.
Michigan Sea Grant Purple Pages - biological control
of purple loosestrife www.miseagrant.umich.edu/ais/pp/index.html
U.S. Geological Survey - www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/plants/loosstrf/case.htm
Denver Trout Unlimited recommends 100% strength "Commercial Solutions
Formula 409® Cleaner Degreaser Disinfectant" - www.westdenvertu.org/snails.htm -
after a recent Colorado study.
Portland State University Center for Lakes and Reservoirs and the U.S. Fishand
Wildlife Service had recommended Formula 409 (50% diluted)
Zealand Mud Snail brochure from Oregon State University Seagrant - download
New Zealand Mud Snail website from the Santa Monica Bay Restoration Commission
in Southern California - www.mudsnails.com
The snails are very tiny and highly reproductive. The problem is created by
their high numbers-billions of them-soon they cover every stone, log or other
object in the water. In the process they will consume all the algae that other,
more desirable trout stream invertebrates need to survive, including may flies,
stone flies and caddis flies which are vital parts of the food chain. A collapse
of the food chain will result in a collapse of the fishery. These snails can
survive out of water on wading and fishing gear for extended periods. In addition,
invasive plants and animals are known to hitchhike on boats and their propellers.
As a general practice, washing and scrubbing your boat and its equipment, and
allowing it to completely dry between uses will prevent the spread of zebra
mussels and plants.
• Spray gear with Clorox Formula 409 - 100% strength per Denver Trout (see www.westdenvertu.org/snails.htm for
the correct strength and which Formula 409 product), and then scrub with a stiff-bristled
brush to remove all visible snails. Follow the procedure with a careful inspection
of waders and gear to ensure the removal of all adult snails and finish with
a tap-water rinse. Snails frequently collect between the laces and tongue of
wading boots and in the boots' felt soles.
• Freeze waders for six to eight hours. It is best to leave them in the
freezer overnight to ensure complete mortality.
• Dry gear in air temperatures over 112 degrees (50 degrees Celsius) for
24 hours to eliminate all mud snails. Alternatively, place gear in water maintained
at 130 degrees for five minutes. Mortality of the snails varies at different
combinations of heat and humidity.
information on NZMS contact the Federation of Fly Fishers at 406-222-9369.
For an identification description and pictures see Montana State University,
Bozeman, Department of Ecology: www.esg.montana.edu/aim/mollusca/nzms/
Mussel's cousin - worse)
Mussel Fact Sheet - http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=95
water enthusiasts can call (866) 440-9530 to report seeing the mussel or
to get information. Originally from Eastern Europe, quagga mussels and
a related species, zebra mussels, have infested the Great Lakes, parts
of the Mississippi River and other eastern
bodies of water.
yet, but be aware
1/07 - Quagga mussels are from the same genus as the more commonly
known zebra mussel, but are slightly bigger. Douglas Karafa,
an administrator with the Clean Water Coalition, called the quagga "zebra's
" They're just bigger," he said, "and they're worse."
Found in Lake Havasu www.havasunews.com/articles/2010 and
Lake Mead's Boulder Basin and a state fish hatchery. www.nevadaappeal.com/article
Species Information and Contacts
Nuisance Species Task Force - www.anstaskforce.gov
• Invasive Species - A gateway to Federal and State invasive species activities
and programs. Invasive Species Manager's Tool Kit - control Management Plans
• Invasive and Exotic Species of North America - www.invasive.org
• National Invasive
Species Council - http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/council/main.shtml
• Oregon Invasive Species Council (under Oregon Department of Agriculture)
• Oregon State University - www.orst.edu/dept/nurspest/invasive_species.htm
• Portland State University Center for Lakes and Reservoirs - www.clr.pdx.edu
• Oregon Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan - www.clr.pdx.edu/publications.html
• Smithsonian Marine Invasion Research Lab - www.serc.si.edu/labs/marine_invasions/
• Washington Lake Protection Association (WALPA) - www.walpa.org
• Western Aquatic Plant Management Society - www.wapms.org
• Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species - http://www.fws.gov/answest/
- “Aquatic Invaders” – an educational program that demonstrates
simple steps to avoid the spread of invasive species – was honored
by Coastal America during a recent national meeting of the Association
and Aquariums. See the Oregon State University website http://oregonstate.edu
The Statesman Journal's Invasive Species of Oregon, www.statesmanjournal.com
Oregon Public Broadcasting, www.opb.org/silentinvasion
The Nature Conservancy, www.nature.org/oregon
Oregon noxious weed profiles, http://oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/WEEDS/statelist2.shtml
Center for Invasive Plant Management, www.weedcenter.org
Pacific Northwest Invasive Plant Council, http://depts.washington.edu/waipc
National Invasive Species Information Center, www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/
Oregon's list of noxious weeds, http://oregon.gov/oda/plant/weeds/lists.shtml
Oregon State University-Oregon Sea Grant - Aquatic Invasives Identification
- An ANS Task Force Partnership Representing the Pet Industry Joint Advisory
Council, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the NOAA National Sea Grant
College Program - pet and aquarium industry and the nursery and landscape
industry - http://www.habitattitude.net
Native Plant Nurseries: www.plantnative.org/nd_or.htm
Association of Nurseries - www.centerforplantconservation.org/invasives/codesn.html
• Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers! Prevent
the transport of nuisance species. Clean all recreational
equipment. Be sure to play "Who wants to be a fish biologist?" (national
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) - www.protectyourwaters.net
• It's Time to Come Clean (Oregon
State Marine Board) - www.boatoregon.com
Invasive Species Hotline - 1-866-468-2337 or 1-866-INVADER
Species Signs & Oregon Administrative Rules (OAR)
two signs from the Portland State University Center for Lakes and Reservoirs
to place around the lake. 11/05
1) (Red and white) - Harmful Species - pictures New Zealand mudsnail,
Hydrilla, Zebra mussel
OAR 635-056 and OAR 603-052-1200 on the sign
DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND WILDLIFE, DIVISION 56 - IMPORTATION, POSSESSION,
CONFINEMENT, TRANSPORTATION AND SALE OF NONNATIVE WILDLIFE
635-056-0000 - Purpose and General Information - The purpose of
these rules is to protect Oregon's native wildlife. These rules aim for
this goal by regulating human actions involving nonnative wildlife (whether
those actions involve trade in nonnative wildlife or involve interaction
with nonnative species in the wild). The rules allow private use or ownership
of nonnative species to the extent that they do not pose a significant
risk of harm to native species.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, DIVISION 52 - PEST AND DISEASE
603-052-1200 - Quarantine; Noxious Weeds
Quarantine. A quarantine is established against the noxious weeds listed herein.
Noxious weeds have become so thoroughly established and are spreading so rapidly
that they have been declared a menace to the public welfare. ORS 570.505.
Under Quarantine. The entire state of Oregon and all other States of the United
States and all foreign countries.
Plants. For purposes of this rule the term "plants" applies to whole
plants, plant parts, and seeds. This rule applies to all "A" and "B" designated
noxious weeds listed herein, except as provided in subsections (c) and (d). Plants
on the Federal Noxious Weed List (7 C.F.R. 360.200) are also covered by this
rule, with the exception of Japanese blood grass, Imperata cylindrica, var. Red
Baron and Chinese water spinach, Ipomoea aquatica.
- New Zealand mudsnail - prevent the spread - Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers
PADL received one sign from the Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science
1) (White) - Chinese Mitten Crab
PADL distributed the signs to City Parks for boat launch areas (Regatta Park,
Holmes Road Park), DLWID and State Parks
Photo: Purple Loosestrife (USFWS)
Green Thumb Watershed Education Program -
program of the Preservation Association of Devils Lake (PADL)
Copyright © 2003-2010 Preservation Association of Devils Lake (PADL)
P.O. Box 36
Lincoln City, OR 97367